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Referencing Guides

University Referencing Guidelines

Following your University’s referencing guidelines and achieving full internal consistency between the in-text references and reference list is very significant as up to 10% of the overall paper mark can be deducted for referencing mistakes and poor format.

Firstly, you need to understand which referencing system is expected by your educational institution (e.g. Harvard, APA, Oxford, Chicago, MLA, Oxford, etc.). Secondly, all journal articles, books and credible internet sources used in your work must be referenced correctly and in strict accordance with the referencing guides approved by your University. We can offer a standardised guide below, which covers the most popular referencing styles.

Harvard Referencing

In-text citation in the Harvard referencing style includes only the information about the author and the year of publication, while reference lists provide full bibliographic information. Page numbers are required when a direct citation is inserted in the text body.

Direct citation: “The role of business in society and in the world is a complex issue” (Pettinger, 2016, p. 12).

Indirect citation: It was noted by Pettinger (2016) that defining the role of business in the surrounding world was difficult.

Reference list: Pettinger, R. (2016) “The Business of Business: The Context of Organisation and

Commercial Development”, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 221 (1), pp. 11-20.

The following free guidelines provide more recommendations on how to use Harvard referencing.

1. Books

2. Journal articles

3. Websites

4. Images or videos

5. Other source types

APA Referencing

In APA referencing, in-text citations with three and more authors include all surnames of the researchers when this reference is used for the first time. If there is a need to reference this source again, use ‘et al.’ in subsequent citations. Page numbers are always indicated.

Direct citation: “Analysing the source of our mental models allows us to understand them efficiently” (Asci, Tan & Altintas, 2016, 3).

Indirect subsequent citation: Asci et al. (2016, 3) stated that it was necessary to analyse the source of mental models to understand them.

Reference list: Asci, H., Tan, F. & Altıntas, F. (2016). “A Strategic Approach for Learning Organizations: Mental Models”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235(1), 2-11.

The following free guidelines provide more recommendations on how to use APA referencing.

1. Books

2. Journal articles

3. Websites

4. Images or videos

5. Other source types

Chicago Referencing

In Chicago referencing, for direct and indirect in-text citations use ‘et al.’ for the references with four or more authors. Page numbers are mentioned at all times.

Direct citation: “Analysing the source of our mental models allows us to understand them efficiently” (Asci, Tan and Altintas 2016, 3).

Indirect citation: Asci, Tam and Altintas (2016, 3) stated that it was necessary to analyse the source of mental models to understand them.

Reference list: Asci, Bahar, Zehra Tan and Altintas Furkan. 2016. “A Strategic Approach for Learning Organizations: Mental Models.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 (1): 2-11.

The following free guidelines provide more recommendations on how to use Chicago referencing.

1. Books

2. Journal articles

3. Websites

4. Images or videos

5. Other source types

MLA Referencing

In MLA referencing, in-text citations include one or several surnames and a page number, while full bibliographic information is provided in the reference lists. Sources with three or more authors are referenced with ‘et al.’ to replace the second and third names.

Direct citation: “Analysing the source of our mental models allows us to understand them efficiently” (Asci et al. 3).

Indirect citation: Asci et al. stated that it was necessary to analyse the source of mental models to understand them (3).

Reference list: Asci, Bahar, et al. “A Strategic Approach for Learning Organizations: Mental Models.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24 Nov. 2016, pp. 2-11.

The following free guidelines provide more recommendations on how to use MLA referencing.

1. Books

2. Journal articles

3. Websites

4. Images or videos

5. Other source types

Oxford Referencing

The Oxford referencing style uses numbered footnotes for in-text referencing. Special acronyms are used to refer to the same page or to a different page of the previously referenced source.

1. Dawn Iacobucci, Marketing Management, Cengage Learning, Boston, 2016, p. 5.

2. ibid, p. 7 (same work, different page)

3. M. Baker & S. Hart, The Marketing Book, Routledge, London, p. 58.

4. Iacobucci, loc cit (same page)

5. Iacobucci, op. cit. p. 93 (different page)

Reference list: Iacobucci, D. Marketing Management. Cengage Learning, Boston, 2016.

The following free guidelines provide more recommendations on how to use Oxford referencing.

1. Books

2. Journal Articles

3. Websites

4. Images or Videos

5. Other source types

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